The Camp Jackson Affair was an incident of civil unrest in the American Civil War on May 10, 1861, when Union military forces clashed with civilians on the streets of St. Louis, Missouri, resulting in the deaths of at least 28 people and injuries to another 100. The highly publicized affair polarized the border state of Missouri, leading some citizens to advocate secession and others to support the Union, thus setting the stage for sustained violence between the opposing factions. It began when some state militia troops refused to take the oath of allegiance to the U.S. They were publically chastised and marched through the streets, creating local outcry and protest over the humiliation. To further complicate the situation, the troops overseeing the punishment march were part of a German-American regiment, causing an anti-German sentiment to arise among the protesters. Camp Jackson Affair forced previously neutral Missourians to take a side. Some former Unionists, including former Governor Sterling Price, now advocated secession. But ultimately the actions of the St. Louis German community did much to ensure Missouri's continued loyalty to the Union, and in the years following the war, the Germans would gain a reputation as 'saviors of Missouri.'