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QUARTERLY BULUTIN 77 in early days were the exclusive expectation of the king, but soon a democratization set in which brought them within the hope of all. Thus far we have spoken only of the characteristics common to all the gods' figures. The divinities were distinguished from one another by various crowns and by objects carried in their hands, or by the animal or bird heads given to them when not represented wholly in human form; less often by the pose or gesture. To some extent the figures, when not inscribed or of known provenience, are ambiguous. The divinity took on the form of a ram or falcon in more than one place; identification of one god with another, es- '■' pecially of local gods with the supreme cosmic divinity Re, the Sun- god, led to confusion in the types. A goddess crowned with cow's horns between which is the solar disk may be Hathor or Isis (Figs. 5 and 6). A male figure with falcon's head and the double crown of Egypt served for any one of several forms of Horus: Harendotes ("Horus, the Avenger of His Father"), Harsiesis ("Horus, Son of Isis"), and Haroeris ("Horus the Elder'). Kingship among the gods was suggested by the crowns or head- cloth worn by the kings of Egypt and the crook and whip carried by them, if not also by the garment referred to above. Yet Amon- Re (Fig. i), whose constant epithet is " King of the Gods," has none of these, doubtless because he came to this eminence in the pantheon at a comparatively late time; although he failed to acquire any outward indication of royal station, his consort, Mut, was regularly represented wearing the double crown of Egypt. Osiris, once ruler on earth and later ruler of the dead, usually carries the crook and whip and wears one of the royal crowns and Horus, who also in mythical times ruled over Egypt, often wears the crowns (Fig. 7) or the royal head-cloth10 and occasionally holds the whip and crook. Khons was marked as a young prince by carrying the same insignia. The solar gods were distinguished as such by the addition of the sun's disk to their head-dresses. Thus the originally obscure local god of Thebes, Amon, who when Thebes became prominent politically was given standing among the gods by identification with the Sun-god, as Amon-Re, has the sun's disk prominent in his headdress (Fig. 1). Harmachis (Horus as Sun-god) wears on his falcon head the solar disk instead of the double crown of Egypt, as in the other forms of Horus mentioned above, and Sekhmet (Fig. 8) is 10 See note 7.